GalNEMO provides information on introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates and fishes with established populations in the Galapagos. The database contains a brief overview of each species, including its taxonomy, occurrence records, distribution, and history of spread. GalNEMO also provides summaries of introduced species by taxonomic group and time.

The creation of GalNEMO draws upon years of research and literature review, and remains an ongoing project. Records are updated as new species are reported and new research is available.

Each species record contains:

  • Photographic images and descriptions;
  • Information on the biology, ecology, and effects (impacts);
  • Global distribution maps of native and introduced range;
  • Mechanisms (vectors) of introduction;
  • History of introduction and spread;
  • References to available literature for the species and invasion information.

Searching the Database

You can search the database by clicking here. Individual species records can be found by using common or scientific names.

Background Information

Gal-NEMO is a joint effort by the Smithsonian Institution's Environmental Research Center (SERC) and Charles Darwin Foundation to document the distribution of nonindigenous species in the Galapagos' coastal and estuarine waters. It was supported by the Smithsonian Institution. The baseline inventory was supplemented by existing data, including historical surveys and literature sources. To keep the data as accessible as possible records from the Galapagos are merged into the National Estuarine and Marine Exotic Species Information System (NEMESIS).

Fofonoff PW, Ruiz GM, Steves B, Keith I, Carlton JT. 2022. Galapagos Non-native Estuarine and Marine Organisms (GalNEMO) System. Access Date: